In-vitro investigation of remineralization efficacy of nanotechnological products and herbal-derived agents in primary teeth




Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, grape seed extract, nanohydroxyapatite, primary tooth, propolis, remineralization


Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the remineralization efficacy of nanotechnological products including casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), bioactive glass, and herbal agents, such as cocoa, propolis, grape seed extract, rosemary, and ginger, in the initial enamel caries of primary teeth.

Materials and methods: In this study, 80 primary tooth enamel samples were used and categorized into groups 1–10 as follows: intact enamel, caries group, CPP-ACP, nHA, bioactive glass, cocoa, propolis, grape seed extract, rosemary, and ginger. To create initial enamel caries, all groups except group 1 were placed in a demineralization solution for 72 hours and then subjected to pH cycling for 7 days. Except for groups 1 and 2, remineralization materials were applied to the teeth in the other groups for 4 minutes for 7 days. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis was subsequently performed on all teeth. Statistical analyses were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, H test, Dunn, Tukey’s honestly significant difference, and one-way analysis of variance tests.

Results: Examination of the SEM images demonstrated that all remineralization materials formed calcified deposits on the enamel surface. EDX analysis revealed that, when Ca/P ratios were examined, there was a significant difference between the intact enamel group and the CPP-ACP group, and between the caries group and the CPP-ACP, nHA, bioactive glass and rosemary groups (p<0.05). No significant difference was noted between the remineralization materials (p>0.5).

Conclusions: All nanotechnological products and propolis, grape seed extract, cocoa butter, rosemary oil, and ginger oil showed remineralization activity in the initial caries of deciduous tooth enamel. Of all the remineralization groups, the grape seed extract group had the most homogeneous SEM image. CPP-ACP, nHA, bioactive glass, and rosemary increased the Ca/P ratio in enamel more than other remineralization materials.


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How to Cite

Harman EB, Akleyin E. In-vitro investigation of remineralization efficacy of nanotechnological products and herbal-derived agents in primary teeth. J Clin Trials Exp Investig [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 20 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];2(1):45-52. Available from: